CAUTION! It is important to follow the Food Safety guidelines outlined in this manual. For the most up to date instruction visit the USDA website.
There are basic rules to follow when handling food.
They are COOK, SEPARATE, CLEAN, and CHILL.
It's crucial to cook food to a safe internal temperature to destroy bacteria that is present. The safety of hamburgers and other foods made with ground meat has been receiving a lot of attention lately, and with good reason. When meat is ground, the bacteria present on the surface is mixed throughout the ground mixture. If this ground meat is not cooked to at least 160 F to 165 F(71 C to74 C),bacteria will not be destroyed and there's a good chance you will get sick.
Solid pieces of meat like steaks and chops don't have dangerous bacteria like E.coli on the inside,so they can be served more rare. Still, any beef cut should be cooked to an internal temperature of at least 145 F(63 C)(medium rare). The safe temperature for poultry is 180 F(82 C)and solid cuts of pork should be cooked to 160 F(71 C). Eggs should be thoroughly cooked too. If you are making a meringue or other recipe that uses uncooked eggs, buy specially pasteurized eggs or use prepared meringue powder.
Foods that will be eaten uncooked and foods that will be cooked before eating MUST ALWAYS be separated. Cross-contamination occurs when raw meats or eggs come in contact with foods that will be eaten uncooked. This is a major source of food poisoning. Always double-wrap raw meat sand place them on the lowest shelf in the refrigerator so there is no way juices can drip onto fresh produce. Then use the raw meats within 1-2 days of purchase, or freeze for longer storage Defrost frozen meats in the refrigerator, not on the counter
When grilling or cooking raw meats or fish, make sure to place the cooked meat on a clean platter.
Don’t use the same platter you used to carry the food out to the grill. Wash the utensils used in grilling after the food is turned for the last time on the grill, as well as spatulas and spoons used for stir-frying or turning meat as it cooks.
Make sure to wash your hands after handling raw meats or raw eggs. Washing hands with soap and water, or using a pre-moistened antibacterial towelette is absolutely necessary after you have touched raw meat or raw eggs. Not washing hands and surfaces while cooking is a major cause of cross-contamination.
Wash your hands and work surfaces frequently when you are cooking. Washing with soap and warm water for at least 15 seconds, then dry with a paper towel.
Chilling food is very important. The danger zone where bacteria multiply is between 40F and be OF(-17c)or below. Simple rule: serve hot foods hot, cold foods cold. Use chafing dishes or hot plates to keep food hot while serving. Use ice water baths to keep cold foods cold. Never let any food sit at room temperature for more than 2 hours- 1 hour if the ambient temperature is 90 F(32 C)or above. When packing for a picnic, make sure the foods are already chilled.When they go into the insulated hamper. The hamper won’t chill food-it just keeps food cold when properly packed with ice. Hot cooked foods should be placed in shallow containers and immediately refrigerated so they cool rapidly. Make sure to cover foods after they are cool.
NOTE: Special considerations must be made when using venison or other wild game since it can become heavily contaminated during field dressing. Venison is often held at temperatures that could potentially allow bacteria to grow, such as when it is being transported. Refer to the USDA Meat and Poultry Department for further questions or information on meat and food safety.
★MEAT SELECTION FOR SAUSAGE MAKING
Sausage making has evolved over many years and generations, and as a result there are countless types of sausage you can make using the basic ingredients of meat, fat and a few carefully blended spices.Following are a few simple guidelines that will help you make the best tasting sausage possible.
Any type of meat can be used for making sausage: pork, beef, bison, moose and caribou, even antelope make great sausage. t is important when preparing venison or other red game meats to trim all the fat from the meat, as red game tallow will tum rancid in as few as five days. Replace the fat with either pork or beef fat, depending on the type of product you are making, at a ratio of 1 pound(0.5 kg) of fat for every 4 pounds(1.8 kg)of game meat.
The fat content of your sausage will affect the taste, texture, cooking characteristics and shelf life of your product. Most commercially made sausage has a fat content of about 20%. Using less than 12% fat will result in a very dry tasting sausage, while using more than 20% may result in a sticky flavorless sausage that will be difficult to cook.
It is important to properly cure meats to preserve meat and poultry, and to destroy undesirable microorganisms on the meat surfaces that cause spoilage and food born illnesses. There are many steps that help in this process, including smoking, cooking, drying, chilling and the addition of cure ingredients.The oldest means of accomplishing this is by introducing salt into the meat. The resistance of bacteria to salt varies widely among different types of bacteria. The growth of some bacteria is inhibited by salt concentrations as low as 3%, e.g., Salmonella, whereas other types are able to survive in much higher salt concentrations, e.g., Staphylococcus. Fortunately, the growth of many undesirable organisms normal found in cured meat and poultry products is inhibited at low concentrations of salt.
Modern curing is based on Nitrates and is very scientific. The best way to ensure proper curing is to purchase one of the many commercially available curing agents from either a grocery store or your local butcher. A very common cure is Prague Powder, which is available in two types(#1 and # 2).
There are many different types of casings available, the right choice depends on personal preference as well as the type of sausage you wish to make. For most sausages, your choices are natural or collagen.Don’t let the names fool you;collagen casings are not a synthetic product. They are made from beef skin and other tissues. Collagen casings are uniform in size and texture and require almost no preparation.Natural casings are the intestines of lamb, sheep, hogs or beef. They are less uniform in size and require substantial preparation. For those reasons, more than 75% of commercially made sausage in the U.S. is made with collagen casing. There are also fibrous non-edible casings that are used for some varieties of smoked sausages and bologna.
★TYPES OF SAUSAGE
Most sausages fall into one of four categories: Fresh, Smoked, Cooked or Dried. All sausages, except dried, require refrigerated storage. There is also a sub-category of uncooked smoked sausages.
Among the fresh and uncooked smoked sausages, you will find such flavors as kielbasa or Polish sausage.Italian sausage, breakfast sausage and many others. Both fresh and uncooked smoked sausages require cooking before eating and also require refrigerated storage.
Smoked and cooked sausages include salami, bologna, the ever-popular hot dogs and many others roper smoking requires a smokehouse or smoker. These can be simple home-built structures made from metal drums or even old refrigerators or they can be elaborate manufactured units. Most smoked sausages are warmed before serving. Many people think that a smoked sausage will last much longer without spoilage, but this is not true. Smoked sausages should be treated the same as fresh sausage in terms of storage.
Dried sausages require the longest processing time, as they are air dried over a long period of time. Some types of dry sausages are pepperoni, prosciutto and a variety of ham products, just to name a few. The conditions under which the meat is dried are very exacting temperature, time and humidity must all be carefully monitored for a safe and delicious product.
It is important to remember that sausage will lose its flavor the longer that it is stored. It is recommended that you only make as much sausage as you will need for 4-6 weeks. Even frozen sausage will begin to lose flavor noticeably after 6 weeks. Frozen sausage should be thawed slowly in the refrigerator before cooking or serving. Quick thawing of the product will degrade the taste as well.
★HOW TO USE
1. Place the foot pad in a dry position.
2. Connect electrical power.
3. Turn reverse switch to UP, let the piston move to the top
4. Tilt the cylinder and place meat in cylinder.
5. Place the cylinder back on to the frame
6. Turn REVERSE switch to DOWN and push the down side of the foot pad, so the piston will start to come down
7. If the piston is corning down too fast or too slow, use the speed switch(knob)to adjust to appropriate speed.
8. While filling the casing, remove your foot from the foot pad and the piston will stop.
9. When the piston moves down on the bottom of the cylinder, the appliance will stop automatically. Then turn REVERSE switch to UP to raise the piston to the top.
10.Repeat above process starting at No. 4 if necessary.
★HOW TO CLEAN
1. Unplug this machine before cleaning
2. Remove the cylinder, piston and stuffing tube. Hand wash with soapy water and dry thoroughly.
3. Clean this appliance with a damp cloth.